Biomaterials are biological materials that are implanted into the body to replace missing tissue or repair the tissue or as part of implanted medical device. The metals are implanted into body during various treatments, however, this implantation sometimes generate intrinsic problems like corrosion and toxicity etc. To address these issues, biomaterial are used for coating the metal surface, which improves performance of the metal and avoids the issues related with implantation of metals.
The biomaterial coating have various applications in orthopedic, cardiovascular, plastic surgery, dental, neurology, tissue engineering, wound healing, and ophthalmology. The failure rate of medical implantation is very high, which is around 40% only in hip implants. These failures occur due to formation of biofilm during first time of insertion of implant into the body. These biofilms a group of microorganisms that stick to the implant and prevent the healthy cells from attaching to the implant, which results in rejection of the implant by the body. Currently, antibacterial silver coating is widely used for implants, which are expected to favor the biomaterial coating market over the forecast period. However, excessive concentration of silver can kill mammalian cells and in turn be toxic to humans. Biomaterial coating helps reduce these failures by inhibiting bacterial growth and attracting healthy cells towards the implant.
Biomaterials may be natural or created in laboratory and they mimic the function of human tissue. These factors are leading to increasing traction of the biomaterial coating market. Biomaterials may also be subjected to surface treatment it to change its surface chemistry or topography by addition of materials with desirable functions or removal of substance that are not suitable for the particular implantation process. Also, through surface modification, the performance of biomaterial can be increased. It is an inexpensive process as only the surface of biomaterial is modified. So, overall surface treatment is mainly increases the biocompatibility of the biomaterial. No any fixed treatment is followed for surface modification, as it can be altered as per the application and function of the biomaterial. The properties of the biomaterial may vary depending on various factors such as component design, coating thickness, and process temperature.
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Increasing demand and intrinsic problems related to implanting metal will lead biomaterial coating market towards positive direction in the near future
Different types of biomaterial are used for different application. Among metallic types of biomaterials, gold, stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, silver, titanium & titanium alloys, and platinum. Polymer biomaterial coating includes polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethylmethacrylate, polyester, nylon, silicone rubber and polyetheretherketone. The ceramic type of biomaterials include glass, zirconia, calcium sulfate, calcium phosphate, carbon and aluminum oxide. The collagen & gelatin, cellulose, hyaluronic acid, alginate, fibrin, chitin and silk type of biomaterial comes under natural type of biomaterials. Metallic segment accounts for larges market share, owing to its wide application and relatively easy processing.
The growth factors behind the increasing biomaterial coating industry are government support, technological advancements, increased research, rising number of implantation which is supported by increasing population.
Biomaterials coating market is projected to witness double-digit compound annual growth rate during the forecast period (2017-2024). The North America region holds the largest share of the worldwide biomaterials market, followed by Europe and Asia Pacific, respectively.
Blood compatibility issues in cardiovascular biomaterials and stringent safety and validation regulations are some of the key inhibiting factors in the global biomaterial coating market.
Some are the leading players in the market are Wright Medical Group N.V., Royal DSM (Koninklijke DSM N.V.), Zimmer Biomet, Corbion (CSM N.V.), Bayer AG, Covalon Technologies Ltd., Carpenter Technology Corporation (CRS Holdings Inc), Evonik Industries AG, BASF SE, CAM Bioceramics BV, Invibio, Berkeley Advanced Biomaterials, Inc. and Collagen Matrix, Inc.
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