Measles, mumps, and rubella are the three common contagious airborne diseases that are highly caused by virus transmitted by sneezing and coughing of the infected person, which could lead to serious complications or death among children. Vaccines of these diseases are sold as attenuated viral vaccines, manufactured in a lyophilised formulation, which requires reconstitution with water for injection diluent and are available in two forms i.e. monovalent as well as combinational vaccines. Combinational MMR vaccines comprises mixture of two or more viral strains. These measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines are administered by subcutaneous injection to children as well as adults. It is generally administered to children aged 1 year and second dosage can be administered as early as one month after the first dose. According to CDC, two doses of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine are 97% effective against measles and 88% effective against mumps. One dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine is 93% effective against measles, 78% effective against mumps, and 97% effective against rubella.
Currently, few vaccines available in the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine market are sold under the trade name of M-M-R II, ProQuad, and Attenuvax by Merck Co. Inc.; Varilrix, Priorixtetra and MMR by GSK; Trimovax by Sanofi Pasteur and Tresivac by Serum Institute of India.
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine Market Drivers
Vaccine manufacturers are focusing on partnering with organizations such WHO, UNICEF, and GAVI Alliance to improve their vaccination programs, in order to reach the maximum population to offer vaccines. In spite of several governmental initiatives, measles is a leading cause of death among young children. Therefore, increasing success rate of vaccination programmes depends on government initiatives of each country. Some organizations are focusing on initiative, in order to reduce the prevalence of these diseases. For instance, GAVI Alliances has undertaken an initiative to provide vaccination in high-risk countries such as Afghanistan, Chad, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria and Pakistan. Similarly, in 2017, the Government of India launches Pan-India Measles-Rubella vaccination campaign, under which children ages from 9 months to 15 years are vaccinated to reduce the incidence of these disease in children. Such initiatives by various organizations and governments is expected to aid in growth of the market. Furthermore, development of combinational vaccines could aid in reducing cost and adverse effects by reducing the number of vaccination programme.
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The global measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines market is segment on the basis of geography into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa, and Middle East. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 2017, measles and rubella have been eliminated from the Americas region, however, the challenge lies in preventing the outbreak. However, according to a report by CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), in 2014, the U.S. recorded 667 number of measles cases from 27 states, which was the highest number of cases since measles elimination was documented in the U.S. in 2000. This states that the vaccine programs were unsuccessful in preventing the outbreak of the disease.
Key manufacturers in the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine market are focusing on launching new vaccines, in order to enhance their share in the market. According to Access to Medicine Foundation index, 2017, vaccine market is dominated by four major players, collectively referred as ‘big four’: GSK, Merck & Co., Inc., Pfizer, and Sanofi. Big four contribute to 80% of the global vaccine revenue. Players vary significantly by portfolio and pipeline size. Three of the four companies have larger pipelines than Merck & Co., Inc. or Pfizer. In March 2107, GSK’s measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine for indication of measles, mumps, and rubella prophylaxis was in phase III trial, which is expected to commercialize in the forecast period of 2017 to 2025. Priorix and Priorix Tetra Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine of GSK are expected to lose their patents in 2019 in the U.S. Some small players such as Daiichi Sankyo and Takeda are focusing on launching vaccines for MMR in regional markets. For instance, Daiichi Sankyo’s VN-0102/JVC-001 is measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in phase I clinical trials as of May 2016.
Side effects related to vaccinations could be a major factor restraining growth of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine market. For instance, in 1998, Japan stopped using trivalent combinational measles, mumps and rubella vaccine due to outbreak of non-viral meningitis and other damaging side effects which will restrict the MMR vaccine market. Moreover, high cost of single dosage of vaccine is another restraining actor for the market growth. Factors such as limited number of vaccines, stringent manufacturing and approval criteria as well as gap between demand and supply during disease outbreak, and special storage and handling leading to high cost of measles, mumps and rubella vaccines are major factors negatively affecting growth of the market.
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine Market – Competitors
The major manufacturers with WHO prequalified measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines are GlaxoSmithKline (Belgium), Merck & Co. Inc. (USA) and Serum Institute of India Ltd, among others.
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