Nasal delivery is a choice of treatment or drug delivery for the topical treatment of nasal diseases and paranasal sinuses like sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. Moreover, the nasal route is considered in some cases over the normal oral route owing to rapid absorption and needle-free drug delivery with the effect as desired. Hence, it is also one of the preferred routes for needle-free vaccination and systemic drug delivery. Moreover, this route helps addressing issues related to poor bioavailability, slow absorption, drug degradation and adverse events in the gastrointestinal tract. Atomized nasal medications rapidly absorb across mucosal membranes into the bloodstream, avoiding first-pass metabolism. However, during nasal delivery one needs to take care to protect the delicate lungs from hazardous exposures. Medication in liquid form can be administered via nasal route through inhalers, spray pumps, droppers, nebulizers or atomizers. In atomizers the medication exits the tip as a fine atomized mist resulting in broad coverage of the nasal mucosal with a thin layer of drug.
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Nasal Atomizer Device Types
Nasal atomizers are currently used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis. These devices usually are multi-dose products enabling long-term usage of the device. The nasal atomizers are classified based on the technology/mechanics as gas propelled or electrical. The air or gas controlled technique involves the use of squeezed bottle which when pressed releases the content out of the small nozzle in definite volume. The dose delivered however is highly dependent on the pressure applied while squeezing the bottle. An electronic atomizer on the other hand is devised to release only a defined amount of medication from the nozzle. This makes the use of device more convenient for patients at home.
Kurve Technology had designed and developed a nasal drug delivery device called ViaNase in 2004 that used a controlled particle dispersion method. During that period, Kurve’s technology was the only known technique that delivered chemical formulations via the nose to the paranasal sinuses in clinical testing. Moreover, Kurve’s technology was also designed to be used with multiple drugs.
Accurate Dosing is Essential in Atomization
Since then there have been many new devices being introduced in the market with improving dosage accuracy. Accurate dosing is essential in a nasal atomization device to circumvent any side effects due to overdose. Recently in November 2016, Teleflex Medical Corporation recalled its MAD Nasal Intranasal Mucosal atomization device which contained drug to reverse the action of opioid overdose. The device was recalled on the warning that it may not deliver the proper dose of the drug naloxone hydrochloride. This drug with the device is extensively used by the policemen and firefighters in the U.S.
The market still in its nascent stages of adoption is experiencing increasing acceptance in the developed regions of North America and Europe. However, creating awareness among the healthcare professionals and patients is essential for acceptance of this novel technology. Increasing self-medication trend can be leveraged upon for penetrating the global nasal drug delivery devices market.
Major market players include DeVilbiss Healthcare, Teleflex Incorporated, and Kurve Technology, etc. Being a niche segment of drug delivery, there exists a lot potential for manufacturers of nasal drug delivery systems.