Researchers at Karolinska Institutet discovered that normal blood sugar levels in human body is maintained by pancreatic islets, according to a study conducted on March 6, 2018.
Low or high blood sugar levels are severe threats to human health and diabetes is caused due to high blood sugar level. Although the process of controlling glucose homeostasis is unknown, organs such as the liver, the hypothalamus in the brain and the hormone-releasing part of the pancreas called the pancreatic islets are found to be associated with it. There is a complex interaction between these organs and the glucose set point for each organ is different.
The main objective of the researchers was to find if there is any organ that plays a major role in maintaining the glucose levels. Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, researcher said, “Our hypothesis was that the glycemic set point results from the pancreatic islets working as an organ, where the hormonal output is governed by features and mechanisms intrinsic to the islet tissue.”
Pancreatic islets from different species were transplanted into diabetic and non-diabetic mice to check if their hypothesis was right. Further, blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in the mice were measured. The results showed that the glycemic levels of the donor species were transferred by the pancreatic islets. Therefore, researchers confirmed that pancreatic islets are the glucostat in human bodies.
Cells that produce insulin are controlled by cells releasing glucagon in pancreatic islets. Treatments using glucagon receptor antagonists need to be assessed again, as they have direct effects on pancreatic islets. This study, which gives scope for the development of new treatment methods is expected to increase the growth of non-invasive diabetes therapy market, as elaborated in the non-invasive diabetes therapy market report published by Coherent Market Insights.