Single Dose of Brachytherapy May Be Effective Treatment for Localized Prostate Cancer

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New clinical trial study reports that high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy administered in a single, 19 Gray (Gy) treatment may be effective alternative to HDR treatment for men with localized prostate cancer.

The study was published online in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology in December 2017. Brachytherapy implants are surgically inserted in or near cancerous tissue to deliver a curative radiation dose directly to the tumor while limiting exposure for surrounding healthy tissue. Reducing this exposure is of particular concern for treating tumors in the prostate, which is surrounded by multiple critical structures. HDR treatments provides one dose treatment, followed by removal of radioactive implant from the patient.

In this study, researchers found that patients who received a single fraction of 19 Gy HDR brachytherapy experienced similar clinical outcomes as with LDR brachytherapy, but with the convenience of a single visit. The study was results of clinical trial of 58 patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. All patients received a single, 19 Gy fraction of HDR brachytherapy. 91% of the patients presented with stage T1 disease. It was observed that nearly three years following treatment, cancer control rates were favorable and the toxicity profile was highly favorable. Three patients experienced recurrence or progression, yielding an estimated three-year cumulative biochemical control rate of 93%.

According to the Brachytherapy Market report published by Coherent Market Insights, brachytherapy works by precisely targeting the cancerous tumor from inside the body. Radioactive seeds are placed inside the cancerous tissue and are positioned in a manner that will attack the cancer most efficiently. Findings of the study highlight the potential tolerability of a single fraction of HDR brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. The study highlights the need for additional follow-up to compare long-term cancer control rates with conventional treatment approaches, which generally administer larger cumulative doses than the 19 Gy dose used in this trial.

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